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chefpliska

Traditional Culinary and Pastry Arts

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Homegrown tomatoes are one of the hallmarks of summer. I originally wrote this for Missouri Life Magazine where the article was edited and shortened, Here is the full un-edited piece with some tips for growing and using your own tomatoes. To see the magazine article go to https://issuu.com/missourilifemagazine/docs/ml0817lr

 Tomato or Tamato, no matter how you pronounce it, the fact is Missouri grows some of the best varieties of this annual favorite. Indigenous to South and Central America the word tomato comes from the Aztec word Tomalt. They were first brought to  European cooking in the 16th Century and have since then become prominent in cuisines of Italy, Greece, Spain, Southern France, and of course Mexico where they originated. Known as “pomodoro” by the Italians, which means golden apple, tomatoes are also called “pommes d’amour” in French means love apple.

Tomatoes come in all shapes and sizes, ranging from green and purple to yellow and crimson red. There are many varieties; some that are better for eating raw and some that are at their best when cooked. Once thought of as poisonous because they belong to the nightshade family, the fruit itself is obviously harmless although the leaves and stems are toxic.

Tomatoes can be classified as heirloom or hybrid. According to Tim Reinbott, the Director of Field Operations for CAFNR at the University of Missouri, heirloom tomatoes must be grown from seeds that have not been crossed with any other varieties for at least 50 years or longer. Heirloom tomatoes are not known for their beauty since they are often misshapen; however they do ripen into many different colors and when it comes to flavor and taste, heirloom varieties have some of the best flavor. To be classified as an heirloom, the seeds for the annual planting are saved and passed down from many generations. Reinbott says that hybrid varieties, unlike heirlooms, are interbred in order to improve their disease resistance, thickness of skin, and yield. By creating new hybrid varieties, taste and flavor is sometimes sacrificed to improve other qualities.

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Celebrity tomatoes are a popular hybrid tomato. Easy to grow and pair well with homegrown cucumbers for many uses in salads and soups.

When it comes to selecting tomatoes that will be grown at home one should consider the harvest season for when the fully ripened tomatoes will be ready for picking. Some gardeners like to have the bulk of the tomatoes to ripen at roughly the same time and others wish to have tomatoes ripen at different times so as to make them available throughout the growing season. This characteristic is known as the determinate or indeterminate variety of plant. The determinate types is when all of the tomatoes on the vine grow to maturity and ripen at the roughly the same time. The indeterminate type is when the vine bears tomatoes all season long in lesser quantities and they consequently ripen at different times. Missouri has a good climate for both determinate and indeterminate types. As far as general tips for home growers Reinbott offers this advice:

  • When it comes to keeping the tomato vines disease free sanitation is very important. To do this wipe down the steaks, cages or anything that touches the vines with a 10% bleach to 90% water solution
  • Mulch the vines with a thick layer of straw or leaf mulch. This helps with water retention as well as disease prevention
  • When low branches touch the ground make sure to stake them up or trim them
  • Tomato plants love the heat but do not do well in wet conditions. When the growing season is rainy tomatoes tend to have a lot of problems
  • One of the pests that can damage tomatoes is the hornworm. If you find them on your plants it is best to hand pick them off and dispose of them
  • Blossom end rot is another common problem for tomatoes which is attributed to a nutrient deficiency. To guard against this, use calcium nitrate around the roots of the vines

Tomatoes come in a vast array of varieties many of which grow well in Missouri’s hot humid summers. They can be loosely categorized into four major groups: salad, plum, cherry, and beefsteak tomatoes. Each group of tomato has its own specific characteristics which pertain to the sweetness/acidity level, thickness of skin, amount of seeds, and amount of water that the tomato contains. Tomato colors span the spectrum from red, orange, yellow, purple, pink, black and green when fully ripe. Some varieties are best grown on the ground, some staked or in cages and some grow well in pots or containers.

Salad tomatoes are normally 2 to 3 inches in diameter and are used in salads, sandwiches and salsas. Heirloom and hybrid varieties include Arkansas Traveler, Creole Original, Djeena Lees Golden, Oh Happy Day Hybrid, Green Zebra and Garden Peach.

Plum Tomatoes contain less seeds and water then salad tomatoes. This makes them an excellent choice for sauces and soups. This is also the type of tomato that is used to make tomato paste.  Plum tomatoes along with cherry tomatoes are delicious when dried or slow roasted in olive oil with garlic and herbs. Some varieties are Roma, Amish Paste Tomatoes, Amos Coli and San Marzano.

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Pico de Gallo also known as Salsa Fresca is a good way to use Plum tomatoes due to the small amount of seeds. Made with just 5 ingredients tomatoes, onion, chili’s, lime and cilantro.

Cherry and grape tomatoes bear fruit in clusters and can be grown in pots. Served most often in salads, cherry tomatoes are a good starter plant for young children who love to eat the tasty ripe tomatoes when harvested. Varieties include Chadwick Cherry, Fox Cherry, Pearly Pink, Black Cherry and Blue Cream. Some of the best are Super Sweet 100’s, Sun Sugar, Sun Gold and Sugary.

Surimi Salad
Cherry and grape tomatoes are excellent in pasta salad. Served with a light vinaigrette and fresh herbs.

Beef steak tomatoes are prized for their size and mild flavor, usually used in sandwiches. These behemoths can weigh as much as 1 to 3 pounds. Due to their gigantic size, they have a longer growing time when compared to the other types of tomatoes and special care has to be taken since they are so large. Some types of beefsteak tomatoes are: Steak House hybrid, Mortgage Lifter, Big Rainbow, Cherokee Purple, Brandy Wine Pink and Missouri Love Apple

Three of my favorite ways to serve tomatoes are as a smoked tomato relish (great with grilled steaks), as a slow roasted tomato in olive oil known as a tomato confit in culinary terms (best served on croustades with chopped olives and herbs or as a garnish for grilled fish or chicken), or in a cream of roasted tomato soup garnished with goat cheese and chive mousse. No matter how they are served, when homegrown tomatoes are picked at the peak of their ripeness and prepared carefully with top quality ingredients, they will be the hit of any summer get-together or dinner party. It is no wonder why they are called love apples.

1st steps in peeling tomatoes
Peeling and deseeding tomatoes is important for many recipes. Here are the steps on how to do it.
next 4 steps for peeling tomatoes
Once peeled and seeded, tomatoes can be chopped up for a variety of uses. Classically they are called “Tomato Concasse”.
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Rice can be prepared in a vast variety of ways! Pilaf, Steamed, Boiled is three ways to cook it. Leftover rice stirfried with Duck and Cashews makes a delicious meal.

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Saffron Rice is a variation of rice pilaf that goes great with Grilled Chicken, Sausage and Shrimp.

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In this style of rice, I used a blend of chopped Onions, Celery, Bell Peppers, Fennel and Garlic that I sauteed in Olive Oil in a heavy-bottomed saucepot, prior to adding the Rice.
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In the next step, I added Saffron, Chicken broth and drained diced canned Tomatoes then brought it to a boil, covered and baked it until all of the broth was absorbed.

Rice is perfect for long term storage at home which is more important than ever at this time. Rice can be prepared in many different ways. It can also be used for many types of dishes, perhaps that is why it is one of the world’s most basic foods. In this post, I will feature three ways that I have recently prepared it at home for my wife and myself.

Two of the most basic types of rice that are widely used are short-grain rice (used for sushi and risotto), and long grain rice (long-grain white, basmati, jasmine). For this post, I will focus on long-grain rice and the technique for cooking it known as the pilaf technique in a variation of saffron rice. Two other ways that I prepared rice this past month are with cooked lentils and leftover rice in stirfried application with duck breast and cashews.

Rice Pilaf is made with long grain rice it is easy to make once the technique is understood and the ratio of rice to liquid is measured correctly. Pilaf in its most basic form is made in 4 simple steps:

  1. Brown the rice in butter until it is light brown and fragrant (normally a small about of minced onions is also used)
  2. Add hot chicken broth or water and a pinch of salt and a bay leaf ( in a ratio of 1 part rice to 1 1/2 up to 2 parts liquid) in the saffron rice in this post I used 1 cup rice to 13/4 cups chicken broth.
  3. Bring to a boil, then cover and bake at 350F for 20 to 25 minutes (until all of the broth is absorbed)
  4. Remove from the oven, discard the bay leaf, and fluff up the rice loosely with a fork, then let it sit for 5 minutes and serve.

Variations that can lead to one-pot meals are Jambalaya, Paella, and Arroz con Pollo.

Rice Pilaf can also be made with other vegetables such as carrots, celery, bell peppers or mushrooms in the first step and other spices as well such as paprika, curry powder or cumin. After the rice is cooked, frozen peas, cooked beans or other grains can be added as well. Diced cooked chicken or shrimp can also be added.

Learning to cook rice with its many types and variations will open a whole new world of culinary possibilities. Enjoy and be safe and well my friends!

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Roasted Chicken with a side of Rice served with Lentils, Zucchini stewed with Tomatoes and mashed Acorn Squash made a tasty nutritious meal.
Three Simple Marinades
Left to right – White wine herb, Mustard garlic and Maple apple cider vinegar marinades. Make all three at once to use time more efficiently.

During this time of a world-wide pandemic and home isolation, many people will need to cook who previously may have frequently eaten out or had food delivered. This can be challenging and even frustrating for some, however, cooking can be made easier, less stressful and even satisfying and joyful when basic techniques and recipes are used.

Marinating food prior to cooking is one way to improve flavor and preserve it for a longer period of time which is even more important than ever at this time. The process of marinating will preserve meat and seafood for 5 up to 7 days, also the food can be frozen which can help prevent freezer burn and when thawed the flavor will be enhanced once cooked. Here are three of my favorite marinades that are easy to prepare with basic pantry ingredients.

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Mustard Garlic Marinade
Yield ½ cup- 2 chicken breasts or 4 to 6 chicken thighs

1 Tbl.                     Whole grain mustard (Dijon can also be used)
1 Tbl.                     Balsamic Vinegar
1 Tbl.                     Sugar
2 each                   Garlic Cloves, chopped
6 turns                  Black pepper from a pepper mill
¼ cup                    Vegetable oil

  1. Mix first 5 ingredients together in a small bowl
  2. Whisk in the oil in a slow steady stream to form a thick (emulsified) marinade
  3. Use to marinate chicken or refrigerate to use later.

Maple Apple Cider Vinegar Marinade
Yield 1 ½ cups- 6 to 8 large pork chops

½ cup                   Pure maple syrup
¼ cup                   Apple cider vinegar
¼ cup                   Finely chopped shallots
1/2 Tbl.                 Fresh tarragon leaves (cut the amount in half if using dried herbs)
1 Tbl.                    Fresh thyme leaves (cut the amount in half if using dried herbs)
1/4 cup                 Vegetable oil
1 Tbl.                    Coarse ground black pepper
1 tsp.                     Crushed red pepper flakes

Mix all ingredients together and marinate pork chops or refrigerate for later use.

White Wine Herb Marinade
Yield ¾ cup- 3 to 4 pieces of salmon or chicken

¼ cup                    White wine
1 Tbl.                     Finely chopped shallots
1 Tbl.                     Chopped fresh herbs such as basil, tarragon, dill or chives (use 1 teaspoon for dry herbs)
6 turns                  Black Pepper from a pepper mill
½ cup                    Olive Oil

Mix all together and marinate salmon or chicken or store for later use.

Here are some tips for proper marinating:

  • Make sure that the meats and fish are all well coated on all sides prior to storing them.
  • All of these marinades add the most flavor when they are left overnight in the refrigerator to enable the flavors to fully penetrate the proteins.
  • Turning the meats or fish after 8 to 10 hours helps to ensure more even penetration of the marinade.
  • If a shorter time is needed to marinate the protein in the case of the Maple Cider Vinegar or White Wine Herb Vinegar the marinade can be heated on the stove or microwaved then cooled prior to use.
Cast Iron Seared Maple Apple Cider Vinegar Pork Chop
Marinated Pork Chop with Apple Cider Vinegar Marinade is topped with fresh thyme sprigs and basted with butter while cooking.

Marinating foods prior to cooking is just one example and an easy way to create great meals at home when combined with good cooking principles and flavorful accompaniments. I hope you enjoy these recipes and be safe and well during these trying times.

October is the perfect time to cook traditional German foods. I first learned how to make this dish when I was a young 19-year-old sous chef working for a world-class German chef at the brand new  22-story Sheraton Hotel in Billings, Montana. Many decades later I revived this classic dish known as “Rind Fleisch Rouladen” in Germany in our student-run restaurant at Ozarks Technical Community College and we quickly sold out of all of the orders. Here is how I made it.

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The nerve end portion from the strip loin of beef contains a tendon of gristle that runs through the middle of the loin and should not be used as a steak. Using them in this application for braising is a good way to utilize this cut.

I started by using the nerve end of the striploin of beef. Normally the top sirloin or top round is used for this, however, the strip loin end with the tendon going through the middle of the loin is a perfect way to use this portion of the strip which is often sold as a steak in stores (buyer beware). I then covered the sliced strip ends with a layer of plastic and pounded the meat with a meat mallet to tenderize it and make it thinner.

IMG_2561 Next step was to brush with whole grain mustard and top with sauteed red onions, crisp bacon, and a julienne of dill pickles with the seeds cut out.

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In the last step before braising the roulades, I rolled up the meat (hence the name Rouladen) and secured them together with skewers making sure that the seams of the meat are pushed tightly together. Then I browned them and braised them slowly in rich brown veal stock. At home, a good quality low sodium canned beef broth could be used. Here is the full recipe;

German Style Beef Roulade

By Chef Daniel Pliska CEC AAC
Yield 12 portions

24 Each                        6 oz strip loin nerve end slices or top sirloin slices pounded thin
24 each                        thick bacon slices, cooked and cut in half
12 each                        Dill Pickle spears split in half lengthwise, seeds cut out
4 each                          Red onions, medium size, peeled and cut into julienne and sauteed
1 cup                           German, whole grain or Dijon mustard
1 quart                        Seasoned flour with salt, black pepper, Hungarian paprika
3 quarts                      Brown veal stock
½ cup                          Tomato paste
Vegetable oil for sautéing ( bacon fat mixed with oil can also be used)

Sauce:
1 1/2 cups                    Red Wine
½ cup                          Red wine vinegar
2 Tablespoons             Chopped Shallots
12 sprigs                      Thyme
4                                  Bay leaves
1 teaspoon                   Whole black peppercorns
Cornstarch                   for slurry if needed
2 cups                          Sour cream
Salt and black pepper if needed to adjust the seasoning

Method:

  1. Sautee the red onions until translucent
  2. Layout the top sirloin slices and brush with the mustard
  3. Top with 2 half slices of bacon, red onion, and julienne of pickle spears
  4. Roll up tightly and secure with toothpicks or skewers
  5. Dredge in the seasoned flour and brown well in a Sautee or braising pan
  6. Take out and place into hotel pans
  7. Deglaze with some red wine, add tomato paste and veal stock and bring to a boil
  8. Pour over the beef roulades and braise covered in the oven until tender at 350 F
  9. While the beef is cooking make a reduction with wine, vinegar, herbs, and spices and reduce to 25 % of original volume and reserve
  10. When the roulades are cooked and tender remove from the pan and reserve warm, strain the braising liquid and degrease by skimming well
  11. Put into a pot and return to the stove and bring to a simmer
  12. Add the reduction and tighten if needed with cornstarch slurry or with a roux made with 50/50% corn starch and flour.
  13. Temper a small amount of the sauce into the sour cream in a metal bowl and then add into the pot of the sauce
  14. Remove the toothpicks from the roulades and serve two per order with the appropriate starch and vegetables.

Some possible sides could be- Spätzle, buttered noodles, knodel, red Cabbage, green beans with bacon, mashed root vegetables.

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Beef Roulades with Spatzle, Baked Acorn Squash, braised Red Cabbage and Green Beans with Hazelnut Butter.

 

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Farmers markets are becoming more popular and prevalent all over the country and when in season are the best place to buy vegetables and fruits that are locally grown. Many other types of foods and goods are also being sold at these markets and with a little thought and guidance, your trip to the market can be fun and fruitful as well.

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I love buying my vegetables at the farmers market! Here are my top reasons why!

  1. The freshest vegetables in season.
  2. Because they are so fresh they last longer at home.
  3. Finding out where and how the vegetables are grown.
  4. Getting some good deals on vegetables with slight blemishes.
  5. Supporting our local small farmers.
  6. Many of the vegetables and fruits are pesticide-free, make sure you ask.
fire roasted peppers at the famers market
Some unusual methods and products are often found- here fresh bell peppers are charred and then sold by the pound.

Here are some tips for finding the best deals and using the vegetables once you get home.

  • Walk the market and compare prices before you buy. Often the best deals are on the fringes of the market in the smaller stands.
  • Look for small or imperfect vegetables and fruits they are often marked down and if you plan to cut them up and cook them then it won’t matter if they are the not the perfect size or have some small blemishes.
  • Alternatively, if you are seeking the best perfect produce go early to get the first picks.
  • However, if you shop at the closing time you can sometimes find good markdowns because the farmers don’t want to take all of the vegetables back to there farms.
  • Resist the emotion of getting caught in the moment and buying vegetables or fruits that you don’t know how to cook or won’t cook when you get home. Beets is my example. I don’t like them even though they are cheap and very healthful.
  • Make sure you cook them properly and season them accordingly once you use them at home.
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Baby pattypan squash is a type of summer squash available in early to mid-summer.

Pattypan, summer squash and zucchini cook quickly when sauteed. To mix them with other vegetables such as green beans or carrots in a sautee application it is best to first pre-cook the other vegetables by steaming or boiling them and then stopping the cooking (shocking) of the vegetables by chilling them in ice water. To prepare a tasty medley of these vegetables sautee them with minced shallots in butter or olive oil and then finish them with sea salt, fresh ground black pepper, and chopped fresh basil.

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Using the abundant amounts of vegetables once they are harvested before they go bad has been an issue since ancient times. Preparing vegetable soups is one way to use them and they can also be frozen for use later in the year. Here is one of my recipes for a delicious cream of tomato soup. This recipe was previously published in the Missouri Life magazine. Use imperfect tomatoes which are cheaper and plentiful later in the season at your local farmers market. For an extra special garnish top with whipped goat cheese and crunchy croutons. To see the article and learn more about tomatoes go to page 71 of the  Missouri Life issue found at the following link-  https://issuu.com/missourilifemagazine/docs/ml0817lr

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Cream of Tomato Fennel soup was published in a tomato article that I wrote for Missouri Life Magazine in August of 2017 the photo was taken by Harry Katz.

Cream of Tomato Fennel Soup
By Chef Daniel Pliska
Yield: 6 cups
Ingredients:
2 pounds                      Tomatoes cut in quarters
1 cup                             Red Bell Peppers large diced
½ cup                            Yellow Onions, large diced
½ cup                            Leeks, white part only, rinsed well and large diced
½ cup                            Celery, large diced
1 cup                             Fennel, large diced
1 Tablespoon               Garlic, minced
3 Tablespoons             Olive oil
3 Tablespoons             All-purpose flour
½ cup                            White wine
2 Tablespoons             Tomato paste
6 cups                           Water or Chicken Broth
1 Tablespoon               Balsamic vinegar
1 teaspoon                   Sugar
½ cup                            Heavy Cream
2 Tablespoons             Fresh Basil chopped
1 Tablespoon               Fresh Chives chopped
To Taste                        Salt and pepper
Olive oil for roasting the tomatoes and bell peppers

Method:

  1. Toss the quartered tomatoes and bell peppers in a small amount of olive oil
  2. Roast for 30 minutes at 400 F
  3. Sauté the onions, leeks, celery, fennel, and garlic in three tablespoons olive oil
  4. Add the flour and stir in
  5. Add the white wine
  6. Add the roasted tomatoes and bell peppers
  7. Add the water or chicken broth, balsamic vinegar and sugar
  8. Bring to a light boil and skim off the scum and reduce to a simmer
  9. Cook for 1 hour while skimming off any scum
  10. Puree in a blender and return to the pot and cook 30 minutes
  11. Strain and add ½ cup of cream, and continue to cook until the right consistency is met.
  12. Add the chopped herbs, season with salt and pepper if needed and serve.

For more ways and tips for preparing vegetables, go to my previous post, On cooking vegetables- 7 tips! Enjoy and live well!

 

 

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Cold hors d’oeuvres is one category of Garde Manger.  This image includes deviled eggs, ham and olive crepe gateau and savory filled tartlettes which are a type of canape. Together this display made a lasting impression for an Easter Buffet when I was the Chef of the University Club of MU.

Mention the word Garde Manger to a group of non-culinary people and prepare yourself for a blank stare or the question “What are you talking about?”. In this age of chef celebrities, Youtube how-to videos and TV food shows the world of Garde Manger is not well known. In its simplest form Garde Manger could be described as the art of cold food preparation and presentation.

Garde Manger is taught in most culinary schools in only one semester in a 3-credit hour class. However, since it is such a broad topic there are a number of textbooks that are written about it. Here is an outline of the categories used in Garde Manger and basically how I teach it in my 8-week class at Ozarks Technical Community College:

  • Salads – tossed, composed and bound
  • Cold hors d’oeuvres and appetizers (canapes and tea sandwiches)
  • Chilled seafood – raw, cured, smoked, poached and grilled seafood (sushi, ceviche, smoked salmon, shrimp cocktail)
  • Charcuterie (includes pates, terrines, mousses, rillettes, and sausages)
  • Cold food trays and platters (crudite- vegetables, fruit displays, cheese trays and cold cut and deli trays, etc)
  • Food Art – Vegetable carving, Fruit Carving
  • Non-food Art – Ice Sculptor, dough sculptors, butter and tallow sculptors all used as centerpieces for cold buffets
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Blue Crab and Mango salad garnished with fried bean thread noodles.

Salads can be divided into three sub-categories: Tossed, Composed and Bound. The most common tossed salad is undoubtedly a green salad made up of a variety of greens and lightly tossed with an oil and vinegar based dressing.  Composed Salads are salads that are laid out in a decorative manner and then served drizzled with dressing or dressing served on the side for the guest to use. Bound salads are salads that mixed with a dressing that binds all of the ingredients together – think chicken or tuna salad. Bound salads can be served as is on a bed of greens, in sandwiches or as an hors d’oeuvre such as a single bite serving presented on spoons, as shown in the image above. Two of the most important concepts for this category that I cover are the ratio of oil to vinegar, 3 to 1, to make a simple vinaigrette and the method for preparing mayonnaise to understand the emulsification process.

spring salad platter
A composed salad is made by laying out the ingredients in a decorative fashion for either a single served course or as a platter on a buffet. The dressing is normally served on the side or drizzled over the salad when served.

Canapes and tea sandwiches are very popular and used for butler-passed appetizers, on a buffet or served on platters as is done in a classic tea party. Canapes are normally made with three components with a standard ratio of a 1/3rd base such as a croustade, 1/3rd spread, 1/3rd main item or garnish. In my class, I offer alternative ideas for bases such as tartlettes, choux puffs, crisp wontons, puff pastry, phyllo pastry, and vegetables. When combined with all of the spreads such as compound butter or herb cream cheese mixtures along with delectable main items such as shrimp, smoked salmon, ham, beef tenderloin or caviar, to name but a few, the possibilities are endless.

Finger sandwiches and tea sandwiches are small dainty sandwiches which are larger than single bite canapes. They are normally two or three bites and usually built with fresh bread. Some examples are chicken salad, ham salad, egg salad or watercress cucumber, to name but a few.

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Mono Maki style sushi (translated to rolled Sushi) is one subcategory of this beloved Japanese cold food – extremely popular and served in many restaurants and eateries.

Chilled, smoked and cured seafood covers a vast amount of specialties that include smoked salmon, poached seafood (shrimp and lobster), gravlox and the ever popular sushi. We cover these types of cold food in 2 class periods… not much time when you consider the vast amount of presentations and types of seafood that are served in this way.

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Gravlox is a Scandinavian specialty. It is prepared by curing very fresh salmon with salt, sugar dill, and pepper. Cured in this way it can be preserved for a longer period of time. Traditionally it is served with ice-cold Aquavit.

Charcuterie is a time-honored traditional method for cooking, preserving, and utilizing all of the meat and organs from a pig after it is slaughtered. It includes pates, terrines, rillettes, and sausages of all types. Over time it has evolved into the practice of using other meats (such as game and poultry) and some seafood and vegetables as well. This topic is recently becoming popular again and is the sole subject of some books. A subcategory of Garde Manger, Charcuterie is a highly advanced skill that takes years to master. The methods that I cover in our class are forcemeats, of which there are four types, that are used for pates, terrines, and galantines. We also prepare a simple fresh sausage method so the students can learn the technique of how to stuff sausages into casings. We also discuss some of the other methods and ingredients used in the practice of Charcuterie.

Chef Pliska's Chicken and Apricot Terine image by Madeline Stanely
One of my charcuterie specialties is “Chicken and Apricot Terrine.” In it, I use the breast meat for a mousseline style forcemeat and the brine-cured smoked meat from the legs. The terrine also includes diced ham, dried apricots, and pistachios.

Tray and platter design is like any other visual art form and it employs methods and techniques for laying out food in the most decorative eye appealing way. For this portion of the class, I discuss, draw out, show pictures and books that illustrate some of these basic concepts.  These are the focal point, flow, slicing, serpentine, tin solder and the use of negative space.

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Vegetable and fruit carving can be simple and yet quite effective if done correctly and used in the proper combination with various foods. By learning and practicing basic techniques one can start the journey to more complicated and elaborate presentations such as those used in Thai melon carving which has a history of being served to the royalty of Thailand hundreds of years ago. This food art form takes extreme skill and practice to become proficient.

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Another example of cold appetizers that I served on a buffet while working as the Chef of the University Club of MU.

Fruit and Cheese is a classic combination and is served in many different ways and presented in all types of banquets and receptions. We cover the steps of cheese production and some of the types of cheese that are produced arranged by texture. In the kitchen lab, the students learn some methods on how to display and serve it with fruit.

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Cheese with fruit is a classic combination. Here I serve it with fresh fruit and dried fruit re-hydrated in various ways with honey, sugar, fruit juice and liquors.

The last subcategory of Garde Manger is taught as an overview. This class focuses on centerpieces and sculpture or carvings and covers the methods used to produce ice carvings (the most popular of centerpieces) as well as dough sculpture and the history of tallow and butter sculpture which has fallen out of fashion and is rarely seen today.

In only sixteen class periods, the broad subject of Garde Manger can only be covered as an overview or in academic terms as an exploration class. Consider the fact that baking and pastry arts are taught in a two-year period due to the current interest of many of today’s students. The subject of Garde Manger takes just as much time to learn and master and can be every bit as artistic as those in the pastry arts field. Furthermore, it is a major sector of culinary arts. Hopefully, it will become more widely known again so as not to become the subject of another lost art form- that would be a shame!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Our greatest joys as chefs are cooking, serving and educating students and staff about the many types of seafood that are available to purchase. Shellfish is one type of seafood that is both delicious and available to cook, both in professional kitchens and in our homes. In this post, I will focus on three types that are featured in the opening image. Oysters, clams, and lobster.

Although most of the earth is covered with oceans much of our treasured wild seafood is being overfished. That being said it is important for us to learn about the types of seafood that are sustainable to serve and to make sure that we as chefs and home cooks treat the seafood with the care and respect that it deserves. As a culinary arts teacher, I emphasize this on a continuing basis in our kitchen labs and classrooms. For a good resource for checking on which fish and seafood to use and to avoid see the link from the Monterey Bay Aquarium:

https://www.seafoodwatch.org/

Here are a few tips for how to cook, care for and serve some of these beloved shellfish that come from the seas.

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Littleneck clams “Casino Style” is a very tasty way to serve this beloved mollusk.

Littleneck clams are the smallest size available of the Atlantic clam species. These are easiest to serve by cooking them quickly in a very hot pan with shallots, garlic, parsley, and white wine, covered and steamed to release their own juices. Cook them until they open wide and serve with crusty French bread.

Another way that takes more effort is to cool them after they are cooked and then remove one of the shells and serve them topped with a garlic herb butter, bread crumbs and crisp bacon. To make this even more interesting I remove the clams from the shells, then chop them and add them to a tomato, fennel, bell pepper and onion mixture that I reduce down with the clam cooking liquid prior to cooling and topping with bread crumbs and bacon. This is my way to create the classic “Clams Casino” which, as legend has it, is said to have been created in 1917 by a Maitre de’ in New England.

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Split steamed lobster served in its shell is a classic way to serve this luxurious crustacean served simply with drawn butter and lemon.

Maine lobster is a cold water species that is famous for being one of the finest lobsters in the world. The best way to purchase it is alive! After killing it by piercing the head between the eyes with a heavy chefs knife immediately cook it in a steamer or rapidly boiling salted water for 7 to 8 minutes per pound. Then split and serve it or ice it down and cool for another use. I like to serve 1 1/2 to 2-pound lobsters which are the most tender.

If I remove the meat from the shells I always go on to use the shells for a lobster stock or lobster cream by roasting them and then crushing them up prior to sauteeing them with 25% mirepoix and a little tomato paste. The next step is to add a good amount of brandy and then carefully ignite (flambee) prior to adding herbs and water for a lobster stock or heavy cream and a small amount of water for a decadent sauce.

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Served on the half shell- oysters are served in restaurants and oyster houses near the coasts often with just a dash of lemon or a peppery shallot vinegarette known as mignonette

Eating oysters raw on the half shell just after being shucked is an acquired taste. However, it is cherished by many who love the creaminess and briny saltiness that can only be found in these raw bi-valve creatures that are farmed or harvested wild from our coastal regions. There are many different types of oysters available in this country, all of which belong to only 5 species. They are Atlantic, Pacific, Kumamoto, Belon or European flat and Olympia all of which are different in taste and size. Atlantic Bluepoint oysters, which are the ones pictured in the opening image of this post, are one of the most popular types; some of the best come from the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. For more on oysters go to

https://www.chefs-resources.com/seafood/oysters/the-5-oyster-species/

As with all oysters, when served raw it is best to know where they originate specifically and purchase them from repeatable dealers. This is due to the fact that eating them raw can be dangerous to your health if the oyster has been tainted by toxins or pollutants that can cause serious illness if consumed raw. Cooking them is a safer way to eat them and two of the best ways to do this are either fried or baked as in the classic oyster dish “Oysters Rockefeller”.

Shellfish are also often served cold for buffets, at raw bars and in the famous cold seafood platter known as “L’assiette fruits de mer” which when translated from French means, a platter of seafood. I like to serve cold seafood on canapes as well. Here are three of my favorites: Butter Poached Royal Rock Shrimp, Smoked Mussels and Cilantro Lime Grilled Scallops. Simply delicious!

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Vegetables range from common to exotic such as the baby Romanesco which is a type of Broccoli.

Eating more vegetables should not be just a passing practice for a New Years resolution. As a self-proclaimed carnivore, I also enjoy balancing my daily intake of meat and seafood with vegetables and fruit. Here are some tips and thoughts for preparing vegetables in the new year.

  1. Roasting vegetables such as carrots, parsnips, butternut squash, cauliflower, and Brussel sprouts is a great alternative for boiling them in water. Toss with olive or grapeseed oil and season with salt, pepper, and cumin or turmeric then roast until lightly brown.

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    Brussel sprouts, Cauliflower and Tri-colored Carrots are ready to be roasted.
  2. Quick blanching and then wok stir frying is an Asian technique that yields very tasty vegetables. Try doing this with split baby Bok Choy. Stir fry it in sesame oil, garlic, and chili oil or oyster sauce then top with toasted sesame seeds. To do this use a pot of salted boiling water and wok or saute pan on two separate burners. Plunge the vegetables into the water for a brief few seconds then remove them with a strainer or tongs and stir fry them in the hot wok or sauté pan with the garlic, sesame oil, chili oil, and oyster sauce or fermented black bean paste.
  3. Cooking vegetables Au Gratin is a classic French preparation which yields excellent results. The classic technique for this is to make a Bechamel Sauce, then blanch or steam the vegetables then shock them in ice water. Place the vegetables into a casserole dish then cover with the Bechamel Sauce and top with buttered bread crumbs mixed with grated parmesan or other suitable cheese and bake in the oven until golden brown. Try this with asparagus, cauliflower, Belgium endive, or Brussel sprouts.
  4. Dips are a great way to add another flavor profile to vegetables when batter fried, steamed or roasted. Try using an aioli sauce with the vegetables. Aioli is classically prepared with raw egg yolk and olive oil. Due to salmonella risks, try using a good quality mayonnaise as a base for the aioli then mix in roasted garlic and olive oil to create a base sauce that can be flavored with saffron steeped with white wine or pureed with avocado and lime for very tasty dipping sauce.
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    Beer batter fried vegetables can be served with an Avacado Aioli. In this image, I served them in bamboo cones.
  5. Mix mashed potatoes with other vegetables such as cauliflower or parsnips to decrease the white starch content in a side dish and to increase the vegetable portion. This is very easy to do, just boil or steam the vegetables until very soft and mash with the boiled potatoes.  Finish with butter and hot milk or cream. Try adding roasted garlic, chives and a touch of nutmeg for additional flavor.
  6. Try fennel and leeks if you have never had them. Fennel is a bulb that tastes like licorice and leeks is a green root vegetable in the onion family. Try fennel stewed with green beans, tomatoes, bell peppers, and garlic.  Leeks can be sautéed with mushrooms, shallots, dry sherry and a splash of cream for a delicious sauce or gravy with mashed potatoes. They are also excellent when sautéed with spinach and then cooked down with cream and puréed.
  7. Sautéing with shallots and toasted nuts or herbs is an excellent way to prepare many types of vegetables. Green Beans Amandine (sautéed with almonds) is the most well-known version of this preparation. To do this:
    1. First steam or parboil the green beans until the desired point (al dente for some, fork tender for others)
    2. Then plunge them into cold ice water to stop the cooking and retain the color,
    3. Sautée some chopped shallots in butter and then add the toasted nuts,
    4. Sautée briefly with the par-cooked vegetables to reheat them and season with salt and fresh cracked black pepper and serve.  Try doing this with broccoli or cauliflower for a great result as well. Substitute the almonds with toasted chopped hazelnuts or pecans for another flavor profile. If you don’t care for nuts omit them and use fresh herbs such as basil, chives or green onions, adding them at the end of cooking just prior to serving.

If you are a vegan check out my recipe for spicy lentil rice cake on My Recipes tab. It is bound with flaxseed and water which is a vegan substitute for eggs often referred to as a “flaxseed egg”. Wishing you a happy and healthy 2019 with more vegetables in your daily diet.

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Baby squash with their flower blossoms attached are a special treat. Chefs often serve them stuffed with goat cheese and tempura fried in a very light batter.

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Making the transition from working Executive Chef to Chef Instructor is and has been a natural progression for many chefs and is now the path that I have taken. Rewarding, humbling and challenging are three words that have summed up my experience so far.

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Rewarding for me to be able to teach and demonstrate my style of culinary techniques for students who are eager to learn the necessary skills to be successful in the modern kitchen. To be more specific, the type of kitchen where food is the focus and culinary arts reigns supreme. I tell my students that although taste is king – presentation is queen when it comes to food because as we all know, that we eat with our eyes first before we ever take a bite.

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In my first semester at Ozarks Technical College, I have taught classes in Garde Manger, Fabrication, World Cuisine, and Contemporary Cuisine. Garde Manger is basically the techniques and methods of cold food production. It includes many different skills that take years to learn and master and are applicable in many different environments. The main segments that I teach are cold appetizers, canapes, fruit and vegetable carving, salads, patés and terrines, and smoked and cured seafood. The class is an 8-week class and with a subject so broad I am only able to touch on many of the skills that are a part of this discipline. Certainly, a challenge to teach such a broad subject in such a short span of time.

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Fabrication which was also an 8-week class is a technical name for a butchering class. This is also a broad field and encompasses both meat cutting and fish and seafood portioning and cooking. The challenge that students have is that cutting a piece of meat or filleting a fish once or twice does not enable them to become proficient. However, all chefs need to be quick and efficient in breaking down large pieces of meat such as beef, pork, chicken or game into usable parts before the cooking process begins. As with all eye/hand techniques practice is the key to mastering these skills.

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Humbling is the word that best describes the emotion that I often feel when teaching culinary arts. So many students with different skill levels, abilities, and experiences. All look to me to lead them on the path of learning how to cook and run a kitchen. In our Contemporary Cooking class, we operate a working kitchen for lunch once a week in a 16-week span of the course. The students rotate through the stations of Sous chef, Sautée, Middle/vegetable, Grill, Pantry and Desserts in a 2-week cycle. They have to produce a core menu along with their own personal signature items on a weekly basis. Here is the menu that we serve.

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In world cuisine, I share my experiences and philosophy for cooking ethnic cuisines from the major regions and countries on the globe in a 16-week class that meets once a week. As I expressed to the class, this type of cooking can be interpreted and produced in three ways: authentic, in the style of, and fusion. Most of the recipes and techniques that I teach in this class are from the area of what I label as “in the style of”. I have also been honored to have some authentic trained chefs come to visit the class as well. Chef Steve (Yutaka) Oshita is one of these chefs who hails from a well known Japanese restaurant here in Springfield. He came to class to demonstrate the basics of Sushi and also gave some history from his homeland in Japan as well. A field trip to visit Chef Andy Hampshire, owner of a British gastro pub (Farmers Gastro Pub) has also been a topic for one of these classes. Researching and studying the cuisines of the world has been quite a humbling experience. The challenge that I have discovered in this class is that the more I think I know about a subject the more I find out that I need to know before I write my lesson plans for world cuisine.

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Chef Oshita demonstrates the basics skills that are needed to make sushi.

In closing, I am happy and honored to be have been given this chance to teach and share my experiences at OTC to a diverse range of students in a well-run ACF accredited program.  A new path in my ever-evolving culinary journey.

Until next time I remain yours in all things culinary,

Daniel

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